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This focuses on the malfunctions and disorders of heart, and it includes diagnosis and treatment of heart related disorders like congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, valvular coronary illnesses, and electrophysiology. It plays a major role in coordination of research in medical diagnosis, cardiovascular medicine, cardiovascular surgery. It also deals with the different techniques used to diagnose and treat heart patients, including the use of echocardiographs, which records heart beats and abnormal rhythms.

One of the strongest muscles in the human body is the heart which is just the size of a fist. In general, the heart is a pump that supplies blood to the entire human body. The average heart beat per minute is 70 times and this rate can double during exercise or during extreme emotions. This heart is vulnerable to breakdowns and failures. This heart failure leads to numerous diseases together known as Cardiovascular diseases. Some of the CVD are coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, congenital heart disease and inflammatory heart disease.

This session is about to discuss the contemporary topics in cardiology in which a considerable advance has been made in recent years. There has been a rapid advance in the catheter-based interventions for peripheral vascular, cerebrovascular diseases, and coronary artery and also advances in the understanding of pathophysiology and management of diastolic heart failure. Clinical lipidology, cardiovascular pharmacogenetics, advances in treatment of arrhythmias, present role of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular disease. As with all new techniques and modes of treatment, subsequent clinical trials and comparisons have better defined the indications of these techniques and their applications. Thus, the last few years the advances in cardiology have been more oriented to consolidating our experience with new techniques and better defining their use.

This targets on the relationship between central obesity and stroke which is inconsistent in diabetic and non-diabetic populations, also indicates an interaction between diabetes and central obesity on stroke risk. It includes lifestyle modifications and different therapeutic modalities to control conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, arrhythmias and also describes the possible ways to reduce the incidence of stroke associated with diabetes and obesity.

It is concerned on how Heart surgery can fix problems in the heart valves and arteries, restore blood flow, or replace a diseased heart altogether and ways to approach complex procedures including Ventricular assist devices, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Heart failure, Tricuspid valve regurgitation, Thoracic aortic aneurysm, Heart valve surgery, Congenital Heart defects in children, Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, Heart Transplantation and also explains the guidelines for when to stop the blood thinners, and also what parameters to monitor.

In recent years the growth of athletes and sports people has been increased more than double the rate. In general, we all know that the physical exercise reduces the risk of heart diseases and blood pressure. The desire of sports is raised in children and adult with heart disease. But, at the same situation vigorous physical exercise increases the risk of CV outcomes in competitive athletes and high outcome people (CAHOP). These CAHOP people are always at an intense risk of adverse CV outcomes and also inherited CV Diseases. A multidisciplinary team of trained coaches, trainers, physical therapists, primary care sports medicine physician and orthopedic surgeon functions with CAHOP people. In recent days the situation arose for a demand of CV specialist in the team. These members must have the essential skills necessary to practice sports cardiology. By seeing the demand, a separate council has been started at American College of Cardiology - Sports and Exercise Council. In just a short span of 2 years, this council has reached up to 4000 members which show the increased interest of people in the emerging risks and innovations. This CV attack is also termed as sports-related sudden cardiac death. Commonly, sudden cardiac death is triggered by a malignant tachyarrhythmia such as ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia degenerating into VF. There is typically an underlying substrate for arrhythmia trigger, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, channelopathies, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, or coronary congenital abnormalities, among others.

A brief about Heart Failure that describes the inability of the Heart to adequately pump the blood to meet circulatory demands of the body, causes of Heart failure and also pathology which leads to cardiomyopathy. It concentrates on the conversion of normal rhythms in to malignant rhythms as this is the basis of the designation Sudden Cardiac Death as it is the end stage of most heart diseases.

This deals with the intricate process of regeneration that aims to repair irreversibly damaged heart tissue with cutting edge science, including cell-free and stem cell therapy. The overarching vision for the cardiac regeneration is to develop new therapies for heart attack, chest pain caused by coronary artery disease, chest pain from small vessel disease, heart failure, left ventricular assist device. This review provides new insights in to the immunoregulatory functions of cardiac interstitial cells and their complex network of interactions, highlighting the therapeutic potential for cardiac disease.

It plays a vital role in detailing the intersection of heart conditions in patients who have been treated for cancer, and how to assess patients for potential risk of developing heart conditions if patients take specified types of cancer drugs or following radiation treatment to the chest. The mission is to advance the science and practice of this emerging field to find a balance between oncologic efficacy and reducing adverse cardiovascular effects

Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel & imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy. Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter-based treatment of structural heart diseases. The main advantages of using the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery.

It is concerned with certain abnormalities in the structure of the heart or in the blood vessels around the heart and details the factors which increase the risk of congenital Heart defects. Whereas pediatric cardiology deals with diseases of the heart in the growing and developing individuals including all types of coronary illness in neonates, infants and adolescents and disturbances of circulatory function.

It deals with managing anticoagulants in the safest and most effective manner, explains the prescribing and dosage information for several classes and types of anticoagulation drugs, including warfarin and direct thrombin inhibitors. Specialized anticoagulation services were developed for the purposes of conducting the environmental scanning, which includes Hospital-based anticoagulation clinics, Primary care settings, Point-of-care testing and dose adjustment by community pharmacies.

Aortic coarctation means narrowing of the aorta which is the large blood vessel that leaves from the heart. When narrowing occurs the heart must pump the blood very fast for it to flow through the narrowed part of the aorta. This is a condition from childbirth (congenital), and it leads to other heart defects. This case doesn’t have symptoms in most cases and not known until adulthood. The important symptom seen in adulthood is High Blood Pressure. A rare case of aortic coarctation if severe is heart failure in babies. 

Aortic coarctation means narrowing of the aorta which is the large blood vessel that leaves from the heart. When narrowing occurs the heart must pump the blood very fast for it to flow through the narrowed part of the aorta. This is a condition from childbirth (congenital), and it leads to other heart defects. This case doesn’t have symptoms in most cases and not known until adulthood. The important symptom seen in adulthood is High Blood Pressure. A rare case of aortic coarctation if severe is heart failure in babies. 

The systolic and diastolic pressures are measured using a device known as Sphygmomanometer. In general, a person is said to have High Blood Pressure if the systolic pressure is greater than or equal to 140mm Hg and diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90mm Hg. It is necessary to maintain a lower pressure because for every 20mm Hg of systolic pressure raises above 115 and for every 10mm Hg of diastolic pressure raises above 75. The different Hypertensive stages are normal, pre-hypertension, stage-1, and stage-2. In case of normal the systolic pressure remains below 120mm Hg and diastolic pressure remains below 80mm Hg and no treatment is required but regular check-up is needed so that the blood pressure is not raised. Pre-hypertension is a case where the systolic pressure is between 120-139m Hg and diastolic pressure is between 80-89mm Hg and it is a stage where the risk of developing hypertension is high. Stage-1, is where the systolic pressure is between 140-159mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is between 90-99mm Hg, the medications are followed as per pre-hypertension but also the use of drugs is advised in order to reduce the risk of developing heart diseases. Stage-2 is the severe case where the systolic pressure is 160mm Hg or higher and the diastolic pressure is 100mm Hg or higher. A very high dosage level of drugs is used in order to bring the blood pressure down in this case. 

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