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The study of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of various infectious diseases is termed as Medical microbiology. Medical microbiology is the application of all non-pathogenic microbes for improving health and in prevention of epidemics, outbreak of various diseases. Microorganisms commonly causing infections are bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and a viral infectious protein called as a prion. Detailed identification techniques used in laboratories are typically microbial culture followed by microscopy and biochemical tests and then genotyping. Medical microbiologists recommend treatment based on the report of a strain of microbe and the prevalent antibiotic resistances, precise site and source of infection, the probable toxicity of drugs and drug allergies. Drug resistance comprises chemically inactivating of a drug or a cell ceasing the uptake of a drug.
Microbial biochemistry comprises of biochemical reactions in microbial growth, various modes and mechanisms processes of pathogenesis required in causing infection diseases in the host. It involves the study of microbial growth, microbial cell structure, microbial metabolism, primary and advanced functions and the interactions of biological macromolecules, like carbohydrates, proteins, Fatty Acids and Lipids and nucleic acids; which cater the skeletal aspect and basis of functions affiliated with life. Biochemical study of microbes is crucial in the processes of their action. Post genomic analyses, maintenance of mechanisms, & functional replication, integrating plasmid functions, conjugation systems and regulatory network are the key factors that play a vital role in metabolism of microbes. When monomers are co linked to synthesize a polymer, dehydration occurs often resulting in assembly of different macromolecules in a much larger complex.
Microbial Pathogenesis is the study of the molecular mechanisms used by microbes to cause disease in humans and animals. Microbial pathogens incorporate microscopic organisms, infections, growths, and parasites and together record for a huge rate of intense and unending human illnesses. Host-microorganism associations require an interdisciplinary methodology, including microbiology, genomics, informatics, molecular and cell science, natural chemistry, immunology, and the study of disease transmission.
Bacterial pathogenicity factors
Food borne microbial pathogens
Host susceptibility or resistance
Viruses, prokaryotic organisms and protozoa
Mode of action and Spectrum of activity
Hospital Support Services
An antimicrobial can be described as an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be assembled according to the microorganisms they principally act against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Antimicrobial chemotherapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating infectious disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical aid depends on many factors like site of infection, host defence mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the antibacterial drug agent. They can also be categorised according to their function. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. Antimicrobial agents that treat microorganism infections are a unit such as medicine therapy, equally for the fungal, microorganism and protozoan infections are such as antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal therapy.
A branch of biology that concerns with the study of fungi, with their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source of wine, cheese, edible mushrooms and their harmful effects such as toxin or infection. Fungi and other organisms recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime molds), often are economically essential, as some of them cause diseases in animals such as histoplasmosis. Food spoilage caused by fungi and yeasts can be more significant, particularly in several key food groups, those that are acidic in nature or have low moisture content. Mycotoxicology is another branch of mycology that focuses on study of toxins produced by fungi, called as mycotoxins.
The capacity of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of dedicated blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation (active immunity). A vaccine is a product that produces immunity from a disease and can be directed through needle injections by mouth, or by aerosol. A vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism. There are vaccines that are administered entirely when the patient has contracted an illness. The intent of such immunizations is to cause an immediate reaction with weakened side effects.
Vaccines mediate protection
Main effectors of vaccine responses
Adaptive immunity activation
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated with infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. Anti-infective agents include antibiotics, antibacterial, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoal. These are promptly accessible to infections. Infection control and Hospital epidemiology are related to the general public health practice. Infection management contains elements relevant to the spreading of infections; either within the hospitals or alternative aid centres, as well as difficulty via hand hygiene, cleansing or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health care domain. Sterilization kills all microorganisms. The essential issue is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection doesnt harm microorganism spores or dominant bacteria.
Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections
Disinfection and SterilizationBioterrorism
A biofilm is any cluster of microorganisms among that cells persists with one another and sometimes these cells adhere to a surface. These follower cells wind up plainly inserted inside a foul extracellular lattice that is made from extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS parts are delivered by the phones inside the biofilm and are normally a polymeric aggregation of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and speak to a group way of life for microorganisms, biofilms are every now and again depicted allegorically as urban communities for microbes. A biofilm is a framework that can be adjusted inside to ecological conditions by its occupants.
Extracellular Polymeric Substances
Biofilms in medicine
Biofilms in the food industry
Microbial biochemistry covers the principles and importance of microbes, their growth and their effects on our surroundings and on human health specifically. Microbial biochemistry allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be significant in the study of higher organisms. The outline of various layers that enclose the bacterial protoplasm and their role in getting nutrients from the surface media through totally different permeability mechanism are represented. Fundamentals of the mechanisms are how cells get the energy necessary for their growth, mechanisms like, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway etc.
Biological fixation of nitrogen
Biosynthesis of amino acids
Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides
ATP generating processes
Chronic Diseases are long-term medical conditions that are generally progressive. Chronic diseases, such as Heart Disease, Diabetes, Stroke, Asthma, Cancer, Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Lipid Disorders. At present, these are the major causes of disability and death globally, representing 60% of all deaths. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. Health damaging behaviors particularly tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and poor eating habits are major contributors to the leading chronic diseases. Chronic diseases tend to become more common with age. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices such as a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or control the onset of debilitating and expensive complications of chronic diseases.
Dialectology & Metabolic Diseases
Infection control is the forestalling prevention of nosocomial infections. It is a part of the framework of the health care. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology are pertinent to the public health practice, interpolated in a health care distribution system. Anti-infective agents like for instance antibiotics - essentially antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal are readily accessible to annihilate infections. Infection control comprises elements relevant to the transmission of infections; either in the hospitals or other healthcare centres including prevention via hand hygiene, cleaning or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain and management. Sterilization kills all microorganisms- live or dominant. Sterilizers are categorized in heat, steam and liquid categories. Disinfection is wiping killing of the live micro-organisms at room temperatures. Ultraviolet light (UV Light) is also used to sterilize the rooms of infected pre-disposed patients after discharge. The essential factor is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection does not harm bacterial spores or dominant bacteria. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is few protective gears to be worn for protection against hazards of sterilizations or while using equipment. The primitive hazards in any given healthcare comprises of blood, saliva, other body fluids or aerosols that carry infectious agents like Hepatitis C, HIV, and other blood borne or fluid pathogen. PPE helps preventing contact with a potentially infectious agent by framing a physical barrier between the potential infectious agent and the healthcare professional.
Study of the interaction of the parasite and their hosts is Parasitology. Medical parasitology has its congruence with the pathogenic parasites affecting humans, the diseases, clinical pathology and the response of the humans immune system against these pathogens. It also deals with the different approaches of the infection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention & control. Additionally, medical parasitology also comprises of Drug Development, Epidemiological Studies and zoonosis. An interdisciplinary field, inveigled by Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, and other applied life sciences. Parasites inhabit the host of a remarkably high immuno-potent immune system. Vector borne infections are transferred via bite of an infected arthropod, for instance mosquitoes, ticks, bugs, sand flies and blackflies. Resistant parasitic worms developed resistance against other infectious agents although the mechanisms of resistance in protozoan parasites are not yet acknowledged. About 50% of known positive malarial cases are caused by P. vivax. Prevailing advancements in state of the art diagnostic tools has ascertained new facets for colossal enhancements in parasitic detection. Control and dissolution of human parasitic diseases require innovative outlooks, notably in the fields of diagnostics, modelling, investigation, interpretation, scrutiny and public health response.
Mycology is a Biological discipline comprising the study of fungi, their framework, their genetic and biochemical characteristics, taxonomy and their benefits especially as a primary source of wine, edible mushrooms, cheese, and their adverse effects with respect to their toxin or infection. Fungi and other organisms such as oomycetes and myxomycetes, often are economically crucial, as the pathogenic fungi affects animals by causing diseases like histoplasmosis. Recent studies asserts that mushrooms have hypoglycaemic, immune system enhancing, anti-pathogenic and anti-cancer activity. Food spoilage induced by fungi and yeasts can be more compelling, notably in innumerable food groups particularly that are acidic and or have low moisture content. Mycotoxicology is a sub-branch focusing on toxins produced by fungi, called mycotoxins. Fungi have an important role in the ecosystem as they break down and eventually decompose dead plants, animals and other organic matter while some destructive fungi attack living organisms resulting in casualties to the forest industry. Fungi are also a discrete source of food, fuel, pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Being eukaryotes, fungi are an essential tool in various biotechnological applications and in bioremediation.
Bacterial diseases constitute infections whose essential causative organism is bacteria. In bacterial pathogenesis the bacteria infect and causes a disease in the host whose cell it invaded in. However, not all bacteria are pathogenic, and they can cause a disease. Bacteria also resides in host without harming it in a symbiotic relation and helps in building a response against the invading foreign opportunistic bacteria from harming the host. Bacteria primarily produce two types of toxins called the Exotoxins and the Endotoxins. These toxins are soluble can be transported by both blood and lymph and causes cytotoxicity at remote tissue sites. Bacteria also infect skin, causing skin infections like Impetigo, Erysipelas and Cellulitis among numerous others. Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs) are mainly caused by Escherichia coli; Typhoid by Salmonella typhi. Bacterial infections are generally treated by antibiotics, which are further categorized as Bactericidal – Antibiotics that kill bacteria and Bacteriostatic – Antibiotics which prevent bacterial growth and hindering their metabolism. Profoundly extensive use of such antibiotics contributes to the swift advancement of the antibiotic resistance in the pathogenic bacterial populations.
Antimicrobial agents kill and/or inhibit the growth of microorganisms and are arranged under antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic depending on their antagonistic character. Antibacterial agents treat bacterial infections and hence are specified as antibacterial, agents that treat viruses are specified as antivirals and agents that are used against fungi and parasites are specified as antifungals and antiparasitic respectively. The toxicity of these agents especially antibacterial agents against humans and analogous animals are quite low. Antimicrobial pesticides benefit the economy by the controlled growth of microbes due to disinfection, reduction of growth thereby protecting various industrial processes, surfaces and water from contamination and spoilage caused by these microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae. Antibacterial antibiotics are categorized as broad-spectrum and/or narrow- spectrum depending on the scope of bacterial infection.
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