About Conference

Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conferences  invites the participants from all over the world to attend “International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases’’. This includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitors.

Our Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conferences is a best platform with its well-organized scientific program to the audience which includes keynote lectures, plenary talks, panel discussions and poster sessions on latest research developments in the arena as well as, The conference invites total Medical Microbiology, Microbial Biochemistry, Microbial Pathogenesis, Microbial Pathogenesis, Microbial Pathogenesis, Host Pathogen Interaction, Immunity and Vaccination, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Students, Business delegates and Young researchers across the globe.

Scope of the Conference

Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conferences provides a great platform by gathering eminent Professors, Researchers, Students and Delegates to exchange new ideas. The conference will cover a wide range of topics and allow participants to discuss about the management of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases consist of Keynote and Plenary lectures, Young Researcher Forum and Poster presentations.

Why to attend?

This conference will be the best platform to explore your research work and innovations in the respective areas, meet your target audience and explore your product and services.

•     To Meet Experts

•     Learning in a New Space

•     New Tips & Tactics

•     Certification

•     Global Networking

•     Rebuild New Customer Base

•      Brand Establishment

  Highlights for Conferences

 1.     Medical Microbiology

2.      Microbial Biochemistry

3.      Microbial Pathogenesis

4.      Fungal infections

5.      Disease, Diagnosis and Prevention

6.      Antimicrobials and Chemotherapy

7.      Host Pathogen Interaction

8.      Immunity and Vaccination

9.      Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

10.    Microbial Biofilms

11.    Microbial biochemistry

12.    Chronic Diseases

13.    Immunity & Vaccination

14.    Nosocomial Infections

15.    Infection Control

16.    Parasitic Diseases

17.    The Global Animal Fungal Diseases

18.     Viral Infections

19.     Bacterial diseases

20.     Antimicrobial Agents

21.     Microbiological Diagnosis of Lung Infection

22.     Challenges in Clinical Microbiology Testing

23.     Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

24.     Pathogens and microorganisms

25.     Microbial Identification by MALDI -TOF MS

Tracks and Sessions

Track 01: Medical Microbiology
The study of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of various infectious diseases is termed as Medical microbiology. Medical microbiology is the application of all non-pathogenic microbes for improving health and in prevention of epidemics, outbreak of various diseases. Microorganisms commonly causing infections are bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and also a viral infectious protein called as a prion. Detailed identification techniques used in laboratories are typically microbial culture followed by microscopy and biochemical tests and then genotyping. Medical microbiologists recommend treatment based on the report of a strain of microbe and the prevalent antibiotic resistances, precise site and source of infection, the probable toxicity of drugs and drug allergies. Drug resistance comprises chemically inactivating of a drug or a cell ceasing the uptake of a drug.

Track 02: Microbial Biochemistry
Microbial biochemistry comprises of biochemical reactions in microbial growth, various modes and mechanisms/ processes of pathogenesis required in causing infection/ diseases in the host. It involves the study of microbial growth, microbial cell structure, microbial metabolism, primary and advanced functions and the interactions of biological macromolecules, like carbohydrates, proteins, Fatty Acids and Lipids and nucleic acids; which cater the skeletal aspect and basis of functions affiliated with life. Biochemical study of microbes is crucial in the processes of their action. Post genomic analyses, maintenance of mechanisms, & functional replication, integrating plasmid functions, conjugation systems and regulatory network are the key factors that play a vital role in metabolism of microbes. When monomers are co-linked to synthesize a polymer, dehydration occurs often resulting in assembly of different macromolecules in a much larger complex.

Track 03: Microbial Pathogenesis
Microbial Pathogenesis is the study of the molecular mechanisms used by microbes to cause disease in humans and animals. Microbial pathogens incorporate microscopic organisms, infections, growths, and parasites and together record for a huge rate of intense and unending human illnesses. Host-microorganism associations require an interdisciplinary methodology, including microbiology, genomics, informatics, molecular and cell science, natural chemistry, immunology, and the study of disease transmission.
Bacterial pathogenicity factors
Food borne microbial pathogens
Virulence factors
Host susceptibility or resistance
Immune mechanisms
Viruses, prokaryotic organisms and protozoa
Mode of action and Spectrum of activity
Bacterial growth
Hospital Support Services
Bacterial diseases

Track 04: Antimicrobials and Chemotherapy
An antimicrobial can be described as an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be assembled according to the microorganisms they principally act against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Antimicrobial chemotherapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating infectious disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical aid depends on many factors like site of infection, host defence mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the antibacterial drug agent. They can also be categorised according to their function. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. Antimicrobial agents that treat microorganism infections are a unit such as medicine therapy, equally for the fungal, microorganism and protozoan infections are such as antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal therapy.

Track 05: Fungal infections
A branch of biology that concerns with the study of fungi, with their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source of wine, cheese, edible mushrooms and their harmful effects such as toxin or infection. Fungi and other organisms recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime molds), often are economically essential, as some of them cause diseases in animals such as histoplasmosis. Food spoilage caused by fungi and yeasts can be more significant, particularly in several key food groups, those that are acidic in nature or have low moisture content. Mycotoxicology is another branch of mycology that focuses on study of toxins produced by fungi, called as mycotoxins.
Food Mycology
Medical mycology
Veterinary Mycology
Mycotoxicology
Mycological Diversity

Track 06: Disease, Diagnosis and Prevention
A disease is an abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function that affects part or the organism entirely. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause of the disease. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. Detection of a specific agent for an infection or a health problem is done in clinical presentation.  It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.

Track 07: Host Pathogen Interaction
Host pathogen interaction takes place between a pathogen and a host. Pathogens include bacteria, fungi and viruses. Each of these several types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This includes the following: food borne, airborne, waterborne, blood borne, and vector borne. Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins into the host to cause symptoms. HIV and Hepatitis B are viral infections caused by blood borne pathogens, and Aspergillus is the most common pathogenic fungi that secretes aflatoxin which acts as a carcinogen and contaminates many foods, especially those grown underground (nuts, potatoes, etc.,).
Host pathogen protein interactions
Resistance in wild host pathogen interaction
Epigenetics of Host Pathogen interaction
General Aspects on Bacterial Protein Toxin
Microbial Infections
Contamination is the intrusion of a living beings body tissues by ailment causing specialists, their increase, and the response of host tissues to these life forms and the poisons they produce. Diseases are caused by irresistible specialists including infections, viroid’s, prions, microorganisms, nematodes, for example, parasitic roundworm sand pinworms, arthropods, for example, ticks, bugs, insects, and lice, organisms, for example, ringworm, and different microparasites, for example, tapeworms and different helminths. A contamination caused by microorganisms. The development of numerous ailments causing microscopic organisms can be stopped by the utilization of anti-toxins.
Parasitic Infections
Fungal Infections
Viral Infections
Bacterial diseases

Track 08: Immunity and Vaccination
The capacity of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of dedicated blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation (active immunity). A vaccine is a product that produces immunity from a disease and can be directed through needle injections, by mouth, or by aerosol.  A vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism. There are vaccines that are administered entirely when the patient has contracted an illness. The intent of such immunizations is to cause an immediate reaction with weakened side-effects.
Immune response
Vaccines mediate protection
Main effectors of vaccine responses
Adaptive immunity activation

Track 09: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated with infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. Anti-infective agents include antibiotics, antibacterial, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoal. These are promptly accessible to infections. Infection control and Hospital epidemiology are related to the general public health practice. Infection management contains elements relevant to the spreading of infections; either within the hospitals or alternative aid centres, as well as difficulty via hand hygiene, cleansing or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain. Sterilization kills all microorganisms. The essential issue is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection doesnt harm microorganism spores or dominant bacteria.
Healthcare Epidemiology
Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections
Disinfection and Sterilization
Bioterrorism

Track 10: Microbial Biofilms
A biofilm is any cluster of microorganisms among that cells persists with one another and sometimes these cells adhere to a surface. These follower cells wind up plainly inserted inside a foul extracellular lattice that is made from extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS parts are delivered by the phones inside the biofilm and are normally a polymeric aggregation of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and speak to a group way of life for microorganisms, biofilms are every now and again depicted allegorically as "urban communities for microbes." A biofilm is a framework that can be adjusted inside to ecological conditions by its occupants.
Extracellular Polymeric Substances
Taxonomic diversity
Biofilms in medicine
Biofilms in the food industry

Track 11: Microbial biochemistry
Microbial biochemistry covers the principles and importance of microbes, their growth and their effects on our surroundings and on human health specifically. Microbial biochemistry allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be significant in the study of higher organisms. The outline of various layers that enclose the bacterial protoplasm and their role in getting nutrients from the surface media through totally different permeability mechanism are represented. Fundamentals of the mechanisms are how cells get the energy necessary for their growth, mechanisms like, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway etc.
Allosteric enzyme
Biological fixation of nitrogen
Biosynthesis of amino acids
Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides
ATP generating processes

Track 12: Chronic Diseases
Chronic Diseases are long-term medical conditions that are generally progressive. Chronic diseases, such as Heart Disease, Diabetes, Stroke, Asthma, Cancer, Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Lipid Disorders. At present, these are the major causes of disability and death globally, representing 60% of all deaths. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. Health damaging behaviors - particularly tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and poor eating habits - are major contributors to the leading chronic diseases. Chronic diseases tend to become more common with age. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices such as a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or control the onset of debilitating and expensive complications of chronic diseases.
Epidemiology
Obesity
Dialectology & Metabolic Diseases
Kidney Disease

Track 13: Immunity & Vaccination:
The immune system is a rather circuitous system of interaction of cells to discern foreign substances cited as antigens. The immune system proffers protection from various infections. Due to a variation in its forms, immune responses are obliged to deal with every category of infection. Vaccination is the utmost effectual approach of prevention of innumerable diseases; immunity due to vaccination is agile for eradication of smallpox and diminishing the effects of many other diseases like instance, polio, measles, and tetanus especially in the developing countries. There are also those vaccines, which are administered only after the patient has contracted a disease; Like for instance, vaccines for smallpox are administered only after exposure to smallpox- When given during first three days, patients are found to attenuate the disease, while vaccination given after a week of exposure disburses some protection from the said disease. The aboriginal rabies immunization was conferred to a child by Louis Pasteur succeeding the bite from a rabid dog. It has been found that, in people with undiminished immune system, four doses of rabies vaccine for 2 weeks, wound healing and therapeutic aiding of bite with rabies immune globulin, when started immediately after exposure helps in preventing rabies in humans. Few examples include immunizations for experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimers. The intent of such immunizations is to trigger a rapid immune response with decreased side-effects and harm as that of the natural infection.
After resumption from the relentless economic debacle of 2008, European Countries have made substantial investments in the health care R&D (research and development). This would probably boost the microbiology industry growth rate throughout the forecast period of 2015 to 2023.

Track 14: Nosocomial Infections
Nosocomial Infection comprises infection, which is struck from the hospital surroundings, staff, in-patients/out-patients, cleaners and other healthcare centres. These infections can be contracted in any of the health-care departments like- the Hospital environment or the Nursing Home, Rehabilitation Centres or other Clinical settings. Nosocomial Infections are relayed to the pre-disposed in such environments by an innumerable way. Various Health care personnel can spread different infections via contaminated equipment, Soiled/unclean/non-disinfected bed linens and other clothes, blankets, pillows, or air droplets. These infections can spread either from outside of the hospital, from in-patient, staff that may be infected, or carriers, unknown sources. In most of the pathogenic microorganisms originate from the patients own skin flora, also called as opportunistic microbes; after any surgical process or those procedures that compromises skin as the primary protective barrier. Albeit, the patient contracts the infection privy from their skin, the infection is nosocomial since it emanates in the hospital.
Hence Hospitals have strict sanitation protocols with reference to staff uniforms, disinfection, sterilization of all equipment, hand sanitization, among other preventive measures. Appropriate hand-wash or alcohol use by medics before and after patient contact is the primary and one of the most effectual ways to prevent nosocomial infections. Furthermore, scrupulous use of antimicrobial agents, for instance antibiotics, is indispensable in preventing nosocomial infections.

Track 15: Infection Control
Infection control is the forestalling/prevention of nosocomial infections. It is a part of the framework of the health care. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology are pertinent to the public health practice, interpolated in a particular health-care distribution system. Anti-infective agents like for instance antibiotics - essentially antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal are readily accessible to annihilate infections. Infection control comprises elements relevant to the transmission of infections; either in the hospitals or other healthcare centres including prevention via hand hygiene, cleaning or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain and management. Sterilization kills all microorganisms- live or dominant. Sterilizers are categorized in heat, steam and liquid categories. Disinfection is wiping / killing of the live micro-organisms at room temperatures. Ultraviolet light (UV Light) is also used to sterilize the rooms of infected/ pre-disposed patients after discharge. The essential factor is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection does not harm bacterial spores or dominant bacteria. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is few protective gears to be worn for protection against hazards of sterilizations or while using equipment. The primitive hazards in any given healthcare comprises of blood, saliva, other body fluids or aerosols that carry infectious agents like Hepatitis C, HIV, and other blood borne or fluid pathogen. PPE helps preventing contact with a potentially infectious agent by framing a physical barrier between the potential infectious agent and the healthcare professional.

Track 16: Parasitic Diseases
Study of the interaction of the parasite and their hosts is Parasitology. Medical parasitology has it’s congruence with the pathogenic parasites affecting humans, the diseases, clinical pathology and the response of the human’s immune system against these pathogens. It also deals with the different approaches of the infection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention & control. Additionally medical parasitology also comprises of Drug Development, Epidemiological Studies and zoonosis. An interdisciplinary field, inveigled by Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, and other applied life sciences. Parasites inhabit the host of a remarkably high immuno-potent immune system. Vector-borne infections are transferred via bite of an infected arthropod, for instance mosquitoes, ticks, bugs, sand flies and blackflies. Resistant parasitic worms developed resistance against other infectious agents although the mechanisms of resistance in protozoan parasites are not yet acknowledged. About 50% of known positive malarial cases are caused by P. vivax. Prevailing advancements in state-of-the-art diagnostic tools has ascertained new facets for colossal enhancements in parasitic detection. Control and dissolution of human parasitic diseases require innovative outlooks, notably in the fields of diagnostics, modelling, investigation, interpretation, scrutiny and public health response.

Track 17: The Global Animal Fungal Diseases
Mycology is a Biological discipline comprising the study of fungi, their framework, their genetic and biochemical characteristics, taxonomy and their benefits especially as a primary source of wine, edible mushrooms, cheese, and their adverse effects with respect to their toxin or infection. Fungi and other organisms such as oomycetes and myxomycetes, often are economically crucial, as the pathogenic fungi affects animals by causing diseases like histoplasmosis. Recent studies asserts that mushrooms have hypoglycaemic, immune system-enhancing, anti-pathogenic and anti-cancer activity. Food spoilage induced by fungi and yeasts can be more compelling, notably in innumerable food groups particularly that are acidic and/or have low moisture content. Mycotoxicology is a sub-branch focusing on toxins produced by fungi, called mycotoxins. Fungi have an important role in the ecosystem as they break down and eventually decompose dead plants, animals and other organic matter; while some destructive fungi attack living organisms resulting in casualties to the forest industry. Fungi are also a discrete source of food, fuel, pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Being eukaryotes, fungi are an essential tool in various biotechnological applications and in bioremediation.

Track 18: Viral Infections
Viral infections are quite prevalent, most typically seen are the common cold, hepatitis, influenza, measles, rabies, Dengue, diarrhoea, AIDS , polio, smallpox, cold sores and genital herpes, Study of various ways through which viruses affect individuals are specified as viral pathogenesis. The purview of the disease/ infection caused by the virus is its virulence. When a virus invades into the host, the immune system starts producing specific/ impromptu antibodies that binds to the virus thereby neutralizing its virulence or kills them. Presence of such antibodies in blood serum detects if a host has ever been exposed to any given virus in the past. This is possible only with the help of specific tests such as ELISA. Vaccinations protect against diseases, by augmenting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, are profoundly specific to a single virus, are typically used for detection in fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, viruses being used as gene vectors in the gene therapy of genetic diseases are also gaining momentum; similarly, in phage therapy, use of the bacteriophages to encounter bacterial infections and diseases was effectual. The recent approach of genetically engineered viruses in nanobiotechnology is seen as the novel approach to combat various diseases at the genetic level.

Track 19: Bacterial diseases
Bacterial diseases constitute infections whose essential causative organism is bacteria. In bacterial pathogenesis the bacteria infect and causes a disease in the host whose cell it invaded in. However, not all bacteria are pathogenic, and they can cause a disease. Bacteria also resides in host without harming it in a symbiotic relation and helps in building a response against the invading foreign opportunistic bacteria from harming the host. Bacteria primarily produce two types of toxins called the Exotoxins and the Endotoxins. These toxins are soluble can be transported by both blood and lymph and causes cytotoxicity at remote tissue sites. Bacteria also infect skin, causing skin infections like Impetigo, Erysipelas and Cellulitis among numerous others. Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs) are mainly caused by Escherichia coli; Typhoid by Salmonella typhi. Bacterial infections are generally treated by antibiotics, which are further categorized as Bactericidal – Antibiotics that kill bacteria and Bacteriostatic – Antibiotics which prevent bacterial growth and hindering their metabolism. Profoundly extensive use of such antibiotics contributes to the swift advancement of the antibiotic resistance in the pathogenic bacterial populations.

Track 20: Antimicrobial Agents
Antimicrobial agents kill and/or inhibit the growth of microorganisms and are arranged under antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic depending on their antagonistic character. Antibacterial agents treat bacterial infections and hence are specified as antibacterial, agents that treat viruses are specified as antivirals and agents that are used against fungi and parasites are specified as antifungals and antiparasitic respectively. The toxicity of these agents especially antibacterial agents against humans and analogous animals are quite low. Antimicrobial pesticides benefit the economy by the controlled growth of microbes due to disinfection, reduction of growth thereby protecting various industrial processes, surfaces and water from contamination and spoilage caused by these microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae. Antibacterial antibiotics are categorized as broad-spectrum and/or narrow- spectrum depending on the scope of bacterial infection.

Track 21: Microbiological Diagnosis of Lung Infection
The clinical microbiology laboratory plays a critical role in diagnosis and management of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. By providing pathogen detection and identification and susceptibility testing the laboratory provides the basis of optimal empirical antimicrobial therapy and individually tailored regimens.1 The microbiology laboratory also provides epidemiologic data that assist the hospital epidemiologist in the prevention, detection, investigation, and termination of nosocomial outbreaks.2 When correctly and promptly used, the information provided by the clinical microbiology laboratory improves clinical outcomes, reduces unnecessary utilization of antibiotics, and prevents nosocomial transmissions.

Track 22: Challenges in Clinical Microbiology Testing
Clinical microbiology is a discipline that incorporates testing for a diverse group of microorganisms. Clinical microbiology laboratories perform aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology, parasitology, micro bacteriology, mycology, and virology. Clinical microbiology is also a rather complex discipline because it utilizes many different types of methodologies and constantly undergoes changes in testing methods. There is significant overlap in methods used to diagnose microbial diseases, and the microbiology laboratory may comprise several disciplines (e.g., classical culture methods, antigen detection methods, molecular methods, and serological methods are often performed under the purview of microbiology). Despite the improvements in microbiological testing, microorganisms remain a constant challenge, and errors do occasionally occur. Clinical microbiology is somewhat unique among the laboratory disciplines in that it remains heavily reliant on manual testing and interpretive/subjective skills, and it is somewhat subjective.

Track 23: Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Clinical microbiology laboratories use several rapid tests to detect specific microbial antigens or nucleic acids in primary nonissue specimens. For example, Cryptococcus antigen testing can be performed on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and antigen testing for respiratory viruses can be performed on nasopharyngeal specimens. Molecular techniques are being used increasingly in clinical laboratories to detect pathogen-specific nucleic acids and have most notably been applied to virologic diagnosis, as discussed later. The introduction and rapid expansion of molecular techniques, especially nucleic acid detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/DNA amplification, to the detection of infectious agents requires clinicians to be familiar with the properties of new diagnostic tests as they enter common use.

Track 24: Pathogens and microorganisms
Clinical microbiology laboratory plays an important role in patient care by providing the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is important for initiating effective antibiotic administration and improving the outcomes of treatment. Conventional diagnosis of microorganisms uses phenotypic identification and gene sequencing, which is tedious and time-consuming. In contrast, MALDI–TOF/MS is a simple, rapid, reproducible, and low-cost technique that has been successfully applied to identify pathogens Based on characteristic peptide and protein profiles obtained from intact cells, MALDI–TOF/MS allows a highly discriminatory identification of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi even after 10 min of culture. With the use of a database to identify microorganisms, the reliability and accuracy of this approach have been demonstrated, and systems (including instrument and software) are already commercially available [135–143]. The applications of MALDI–TOF/MS in research on pathogens and microorganisms include identification of pathogens from positive blood cultures and urine, real-time diagnosis of blood stream infections, and detection of antibiotic resistance bacteria

Track 25: Microbial Identification by MALDI -TOF MS
Clinical microbiology laboratories require accurate and reliable methods to identify clinically significant microorganisms. Conventional microbiological methods rely on isolating potential pathogens in culture prior to microorganism identification. The same requirement is also true for MALDI-TOF MS, although the method has also been applied directly to select clinical samples. MALDI-TOF MS does not have this requirement. Because only 104–106 CFU are required for testing, direct identification from the primary culture plate is therefore also possible without the need to perform subculture. Furthermore, not all microorganisms can be reliably identified using traditional biochemical-based methods and may require molecular-based methods for identification (e.g. 16S reran sequencing). Molecular methods are generally expensive to perform, require specialized technical expertise and may not be available in all clinical microbiology laboratories.

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