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Environment comprises of all living and non-living things which encompass us. In this manner the essential parts of nature are Atmosphere or the air, Hydrosphere or the water, Lithosphere or the stones and soil, the biosphere. It is the life emotionally supportive network. Subsequently the extent and significance of the earth can be surely known. The gigantic increment in modern movement amid the most recent couple of decades and the arrival of offensive mechanical squanders into It is presently generally understood that any future formative exercises must be seen in the light of its definitive ecological effect. Nature have been a significant worry as of late from the perspective of the ecological contamination. Natural contamination on one hand, deforestation, soil erosion population explosion, a global warming inference in biological communities and biosphere on the other are debilitating the very presence of life on the earth


·                     Fundamentals of Ecology

·                     Environmental problems

·                     Contemporary environmental issues

·                     Integrated environmental management

·                     Biodiversity

·                     Environmental Crisis

·                     Land Degradation

·                     Global environmental governance

Pollution is the presence of a pollutant in the environment and is often the result of human actions. Pollution has a detrimental effect on the environment. Animals, fish and other aquatic life, plants and humans all suffer when the pollution is not controlled. In other words, Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes harmful and toxic effects to living things. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollution is often classified as point source pollution or non-point source pollution. Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too are the damaging the environment at an alarming rate. Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment. Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution in our environment. Air pollution is caused by the injurious smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphudioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Toxic pollution affects more than 200 million people worldwide. In some of the world’s worst polluted places, babies are born with birth defects, children have lost 30 to 40 IQ points, and life expectancy may be as low as 45 years because of cancers and other diseases.

a. Pollution Sources:

Hazardous or toxic air pollutants are the pollutants that cause cancer or other serious effects on health. There are broadly two types of pollution sources they are Point sources and non-point sources. Point sources are those where the pollution load can be measured; examples like industrial effluents, municipal sewage, sewage pumping stations and trade effluents from industries. Non-point sources are those sources runoff from agricultural fields carrying chemicals and fertilizers etc.


·                     Water pollution

·                     Air pollution

·                     Environmental pollution

·                     Indoor air pollution

·                     Mobile Sources

·                     Indoor Sources

·                     Hazardous wastes

Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an expanded timeframe (i.e., decades to millions of years). Environmental change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of climate inside the setting of long-term normal conditions. Climate change is caused by factors, for example biotic procedures, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic emissions. Certain human activities have been identified as essential drivers of ongoing climate change.

·         Climatology and Meteorology

·         Climate Change and Health

·         Climate Hazards

·         Environmental Refugees

Soil microbiology traditionally has been the study of microorganisms and their processes in soil. The interaction of organisms with each other and their environments involves soil ecology. Soil Microbiology is the scientific discipline that is concerned with the study of all biological aspects of the microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, parasites and protozoa) that exist in the soil environment. This is a subdiscipline of environmental microbiology.

·                     Soil Microbes and Plant Growth

·                     Soil Microorganisms and Soil Structure

·                     Organic Matter Decomposition

·                     Biogeochemical Cycling of Elements

·                     Soil Microorganisms as Bio-Control Agents

·                     Soil Microbes and Seed Germination

·                     Biological N2 fixation

·                     Degradation of pesticides in soil

Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species

·         Biosphere

·         Population ecology

·         Metapopulations and migration

·         Community ecology

·         Food webs

·         Trophic levels

·         Keystone species

The Geosciences major offers an understanding of the evolution of our planet and its interacting global systems. In this era of global change, geoscience provides the tools that can help us learn to live sustainably with our environment and appreciate our place within the vastness of Earth history. Forces within the Earth create mountain ranges and ocean basins and drive the movements of continents. Wind, water and ice shape the surface of the Earth, making and changing the landscapes around us.

·         Geologic materials

·         Methods of geology

·         Planetary geology

A natural hazard has an element of human involvement. A physical event, such as a volcanic eruption, that does not affect human beings is a natural phenomenon but not a natural hazard. A natural phenomenon that occurs in a populated area is a hazardous event. A hazardous event that causes unacceptably large numbers of fatalities and/or overwhelming property damage is a natural disaster. In areas where there are no human interests, natural phenomena do not constitute hazards, nor do they result in disasters.

·                     Atmospheric

·                     Seismic

·                     Other geologic/hydrologic

·                     Hydrologic

·                     Volcanic

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.

·         Effects and costs

·         Livestock issues

·         Land and water issues

·         Pesticides

·         Global warming

·         Sustainability

Aquaculture less commonly spelled aquiculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.

·         Coastal ecosystem

·         Pollution from sea cage aquaculture

Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘undernutrition’—which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer).

·         Metabolic

·         Vitamins and micronutrients

·         Proteins/fats/carbohydrates

Ø  Kwashiorkor

Ø  Marasmus

Food biotechnology is being used to improve nutrition, enhance food safety and quality, and protect food crops and animals from diseases that would otherwise threaten our stable, affordable, and wholesome food supply. Biotechnology has a role to play in ensuring that safe and abundant food can be produced on existing farm land to meet the increasing needs of the world’s growing population.

·                     Food Processing and Preservation

·                     Food Quality Standards

·                     Food Microbiology

·                     Food Additives

·                     Food Packaging

·                     Dairy technology

·                     Fermentation

Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants for food, comfort and beauty A more precise definition can be given as "The cultivation, processing, and sale of fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamental plants, and flowers as well as many additional services". It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture.

·                     Floriculture

·                     Forest gardening

·                     Gardening

·                     Genetically modified trees

·                     Genomics of domestication

·                     Hoe-farming

·                     Horticultural botany

Crop science combines plant and soil sciences, biotechnology, horticulture and other disciplines to improve crop production. Learn about jobs in the field, salary ranges, related degree programs and topics of study.

·                     Agricultural Business.

·                     Animal Science.

·                     Food Sciences and Technologies.

·                     Horticulture.

The strictest definition of "plant" includes only the "land plants" or embryophytes, which include seed plants (gymnosperms, including the pines, and flowering plants) and the free-sporing cryptogams including ferns, clubmosses, liverworts, hornworts and mosses

·                     Brynophytes. Mosses.

·                     Pteridophytes. Ferns.

·                     Gymnosperms. Conifers.

There are three basic types of soil: sand, silt and clay. But, most soils are composed of a combination of the different types.

Organic - The organic layer (also called the humus layer) is a thick layer of plant remains such as leaves and twigs. Topsoil - Topsoil is considered the "A" horizon. ... Subsoil - Subsoil is considered the "B" horizon.

·                     Climate change

·                     Pedology

·                     Ecosystem studies

·                     Pedotransfer function

·                     Soil fertility / Nutrient management

·                     Soil management

·                     Soil survey

Nutraceuticals are products, which other than nutrition are also used as medicine. A nutraceutical product may be defined as a substance, which has physiological benefit or provides protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals may be used to improve health, delay the aging process, prevent chronic diseases, increase life expectancy, or support the structure or function of the body.

·                     Antitonicity of nutraceuticals

·                     Cardiovascular diseases and nutraceuticals

·                     Allergy and nutraceuticals

·                     Toxicity potential of nutraceuticals

·                     Cancer and nutraceuticals

·                     Diabetes and nutraceuticals

·                     Miscellaneous complications and nutraceuticals

·                     Obesity and nutraceuticals

·                     Inflammation and nutraceuticals

·                     Immune system and nutraceuticals

·                     Eye disorders and nutraceuticals

Good nutrition can help prevent disease and promote health. There are six categories of nutrients that the body needs to acquire from food: protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibers, vitamins and minerals, and water. Nutritional, Food and Immunology program is one of the immerging researches at understanding how nutritional factors influence the immunological responses and regulating health and disease outcomes. Latest research looks to reverse delay or onset of these immunologic and age-related changes by appropriate dietary modifications and to determine the molecular mechanisms by which nutrients modulate immune cell functions. New Strategies are being developed to use the immunological response as a biologically meaningful index in determining specific dietary requirements.

·                     Proteins

·                     Fat

·                     Carbohydrates

·                     Fiber

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