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Gynecology and obstetrics are studies of the female reproductive system. Obstetrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. Gynecology is a broader field, focusing on the general health care of women and treating conditions that affect the female reproductive organs. Doctors who are specialized in gynecology and obstetrics will have to undergo four years of post-medical school training in the areas of women’s general health, pregnancy, labor and delivery, preconception and postpartum care, prenatal testing, and genetics. For example, women may be referred to as gynecologists in the earlier stages of pregnancy, and obstetricians later in their term.

Urogynecology is an extensive topic and is professional in gynecology and the number of Research institutes working on the  Urogynecology are approximately 30 or more and  some universities also give training to women on Urogynecology , total number of universities which focus on this area are approximately 70 and also obtain a funding of around $10000- $30000 and includes 10% industry, 30% of academia and Others 60% .It is a surgical sub-specialty of urology and gynecology.

Urogynecology involves diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence and female pelvic floor disorders. Urogynecology is also a subspecialty of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. Robotic-assisted surgery has evolved vastly over the past two decades with persistently improving technology, proving to assist surgeons in multiple subspecialty disciplines as discussed in many gynecologic conferences and gynecologic meetings worldwide

Gynecology referred as the science of women is a branch of medical science which deals with the female reproductive systems. Obstetrics is also a branch of medical science, basically deals with pregnant women i.e. stages before child birth, during and after child birth. Both gynecology and obstetrics is an education dedicated to the women’s healthcare during medication and surgery throughout their life. These need extensive study and understanding the physiology of reproduction, including the physiologic, social, cultural, environmental and genetic factors that determine disorders in women. This study and understanding of the reproductive physiology of women gives obstetricians and gynecologists a unique attitude in addressing gender-specific health care issues. Advances in women health include Increased genetic testing, The prevalence of obesity in teenage and adult women and the steep rise in the number of caesarean deliveries. Obstetricians and gynecologist shall realize and exhibit the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to assess women by means of clinical history taking and physical examination as the examination of neck, chest, breast, abdominal, lower limb examination for both pregnant and non-pregnant women.

 

Pediatric gynecologists provide care to female reproductive system of children which are used to diagnose and treat conditions. It provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach that is sensitive to the psychological and emotional needs of our patients and their families. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology mainly focuses on uterus, ovaries, vagina and vulva.  It works closely with many kinds of healthcare providers to care for patients who have medical or developmental issues that can affect their reproductive health.

Pelvic pain is found between the belly button and the hips and groin. If it lasts for 6 months or more it is called chronic pelvic pain Chronic pelvic pain typically accustomed describes the persistent pain felt in very woman’s fruitful organs. It’s a big and customary drawback which will influence any lady, in spite of age typically times, the etiology is unclear, and therefore the pain generally lasts for months. Researchers   aren’t bound concerning the quantity of ladies within the united states un agency have chronic girdle pain, however some studies have reportable that up to 15% of ladies of childbearing age have experienced it.Worldwide, this ranges from 14–32%. In 32% of affected girls, the pain is therefore severe that they have to miss work.

Gynecological disorders influence the inner and external organs within the feminine girdle and abdominal areas. These disorders embrace pain (pain related to menstruation), vulvodynia (unexplained chronic discomfort or pain of the vulva), and chronic girdle pain (a persistent and severe pain occurring primarily within the lower abdomen for a minimum of six months). Some issues will influence the right functioning of the genital system and will have an effect on a woman’s ability to urge pregnant. One example, polycystic ovary syndrome, happens once immature follicles within theovaries type along to make an oversized cyst, preventing mature eggs from being discharged. Another fruitful disorder, endometriosis, happens once the kind of tissue that lines the female internal reproductive organ grows elsewhere, like on the ovaries or different abdominal organs. Female internal reproductive organ fibroids square measure non-cancerous tumors that grow within the uterine cavity, inside the wall of the female internal reproductive organ, or on the surface of the female internal reproductive organ.

Gynecological disorders influence the inner and external organs within the feminine girdle and abdominal areas. These disorders embrace pain (pain related to menstruation), vulvodynia (unexplained chronic discomfort or pain of the vulva), and chronic girdle pain (a persistent and severe pain occurring primarily within the lower abdomen for a minimum of six months). Some issues will influence the right functioning of the genital system and will have an effect on a woman’s ability to urge pregnant. One example, polycystic ovary syndrome, happens once immature follicles within theovaries type along to make an oversized cyst, preventing mature eggs from being discharged. Another fruitful disorder, endometriosis, happens once the kind of tissue that lines the female internal reproductive organ grows elsewhere, like on the ovaries or different abdominal organs. Female internal reproductive organ fibroids square measure non-cancerous tumors that grow within the uterine cavity, inside the wall of the female internal reproductive organ, or on the surface of the female internal reproductive organ.

Menopause is the biological process through which a woman halt  to be fertile or menstruate. It is a normal part of life and is not referred a disease or a condition and last for 50 years in women. Different treatments for menopause-related disorders and symptoms include advice for lifestyle, hormone replacement therapy, herbal treatments, other complementary therapeutics and antidepressants.

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Different forms of birth control have different side effects and risk profiles. The choice of birth control method depends on many factors, such as the desire for reversible birth control (preserving future fertility) or permanent birth control methods (surgical sterilization). Some birth control methods, such as barrier methods, may offer some protection against sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), while most methods do not. Some birth control methods have higher success rates than others, but no method of birth control is 100% effective in every case.

Maternal fetal medicine  is a science of medicine that deals with  maintenance of the  health of  the mother and fetus during and after child birth. The specialists in this field are those physicians who are experience in the work of obstetrics. Maternal and infant mortality rates due to barrier of pregnancy have decline by over 23% since 1990, from 377,000 deaths to 293,000 deaths. Most of the deaths occurred due to infection, maternal bleeding, and obstructed labour, and their incidence of mortality vary widely internationally.

Most maternal deaths result from excessive bleeding, infections, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labor, or complications from unsafe abortions. Sadly, these emergencies are often difficult to predict. Efforts to reduce these deaths have included strengthening access to prenatal care, improving women’s nutrition, trying to identify high-risk pregnancies early, and training traditional birth attendants.

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